This is a term that is used more and more in the industry, it is essentially another name for graphic design, or visual communication. The emphasis with a visual designer though will be heavily geared towards the user experience (sometimes referred to as UX for short).
Every industry has its own visual language, and it is vitally important to get to grips with this language and immerse yourself in it before starting a project. Colour, typography, imagery, illustration, diagrams, sizes and photography all play their part in the visual language of design. If you get this wrong, an entirely new message can be conveyed to the customer.
In logo design, the 2 most essential primary elements will be the typeface and the colour, so working with a brand new logo for a company the focus must be to get these 2 fundamentals nailed.
Visual Design for Print
When working in the field of Print Design, there are a lot of rules almost set in stone, this is because the media of print is a much more established and older tradition. Magazine Design for example is very easy to research and get right because there are so many examples to follow and you will find the same principles applied over and over again.
Visual Designer for Online
The most interesting of the three for a graphic designer must be in new media, web design, or visual design for apps. This is constantly evolving as the technology does, but even here we start to see patterns forming and rules that must be obeyed.